• 中央大学で学びたい方
  • 在学生の方
  • 保護者の方
  • 卒業生の方
  • 一般・地域の方
  • 企業・研究者の方

ファカルティリンケージ・プログラム(FLP)
林光洋ゼミ

演習A論文集

作成年度 2010年度
プログラム名 FLP国際協力プログラム
ゼミ名 林光洋ゼミA
タイトル 2010年度論文集
『途上国の地方分権化政策-インドネシアとフィリピンを事例にして-』
『途上国市場におけるBOPビジネス-民間企業の国際協力とその促進法-』
『開発と教育-成人識字教育の可能性を探る-』
目次 『途上国の地方分権化政策-インドネシアとフィリピンを事例にして-』
第1章 はじめに
第2章 地方分権化の基礎
2.1 分権化とは何か
2.2 中央集権国家形成の背景
2.3 分権化の意義
2.4 分権化の副作用
2.5 国際機関の取り組み
第3章 インドネシアの地方分権化
3.1 なぜ地方分権化が必要か
3.2 地方分権化の流れ
3.3 新しい地方自治体制
3.4 GTZの地方分権化支援
①GTZについて
②GTZのインドネシアでの援助活動
③GTZの地方分権化・ガバナンス関連プロジェクト
第4章 フィリピンの地方分権化
4.1 なぜ地方分権化が必要か
4.2 地方分権化の流れ
4.3 フィリピンの地方分権化の問題点
第5章 結論

『途上国市場におけるBOPビジネス-民間企業の国際協力とその促進法-』
第1章 問題意識と論文構成
第2章 貧困削減というビジネス
2.1 企業活動と貧困の関係
2.2 企業による貧困削減
2.3 他セクターとのパートナーシップを生かした成功事例
第3章 BOPビジネスと官民連携の可能性
3.1 BOPビジネス
3.2 海外支援機関とヒンドゥスタン・ユニリーバの事例
3.3 日本企業の官民連携のBOPビジネス
第4章 民間企業の途上国開発とその促進法

『 開発と教育 ―成人識字教育の可能性を探る―』
第1章 はじめに
第2章 成人教育の世界的取り組み
2.1 ユネスコ国際成人教育会議
2.2 ハンブルク宣言「21世紀への鍵」
2.3 識字をめぐる国際動向
第3章 実際の成人識字教育の現場とは
3.1 アフガニスタンの事例
3.2 ネパールの事例
3.3 2カ国を踏まえた途上国現場からの考察
第4章 おわりに
作成年度 2009年度
プログラム名 FLP国際協力プログラム
ゼミ名 林光洋ゼミA
タイトル 2009年度論文集
『市場原理の有用性と変化』
『Official Development Assistance―北欧から学ぶ日本のODAの在り方―』
『女性教育の可能性―ブータンとインドネシアの例から―』
目次 『市場原理の有用性と変化』
第1章 CSRの発展とその必然性
はじめに
1.1 二方向から見る「社会的責任」
1.2 経営者の「社会的責任」と「経済的責任」
第2章 社会企業という領域
2.1 言葉の定義
2.2 事例
2.3 良識ある生産から良識ある消費へ
第3章 貧困を改善する新たなビジネス
はじめに
3.1 新たなビジネスモデルの登場
3.2 なぜBOPは市場となりえるのか
3.3 BOPビジネスと信用販売
第4章 市場原理の有用性
はじめに
4.1 先進国から途上国へ
4.2 市場原理のパワーの限界
4.3 担い手の連携・協力の必要性
終章

『Official Development Assistance―北欧から学ぶ日本のODA―』
第1章 日本のODA
第2章 諸外国のODA
2.1 アメリカ
2.2 フランス
2.3 オーストラリア
2.4 イギリス
第3章 北欧のODA
第4章 北欧のODAからヒントを得る
終章

『女性教育の可能性―ブータンとインドネシアの例から―』
序章
第1章 ブータン王国について
1.1 はじめに
1.2 ブータンの基本情報
1.3 国民総幸福 (Gross National Happiness)
1.4 国民の生活文化と教育 〜発展と問題〜
第2章 家族計画における女性教育の役割
2.1 はじめに
2.2 インドネシア王国の基本情報
2.3 インドネシアにおける家族計画
2.4 家族計画の成功要因 〜女性教育〜
第3章 ブータンとインドネシアの比較
3.1 はじめに
3.2 ブータンとインドネシアにおける類似点
3.3 ブータンにおける女性教育の可能性
終章
作成年度 2008年度
プログラム名 FLP国際協力プログラム
ゼミ名 林光洋ゼミA
タイトル 2008年度論文集
『インドにおけるNGOのストリートチルドレンへの活動』
『農業開発の可能性―各セクターの事例から―』
『開発と環境の共存―アラル海を事例に―』
目次 第一章 『インドにおけるNGOのストリートチルドレンへの活動』
はじめに
1.1 ストリートチルドレンの定義と概要
1.2 ストリートチルドレンになるまでの経緯
1.3 ストリートチルドレンの生活と直面する問題
1.4 NGOによるストリートチルドレンへの支援活動―概要
1.5 NGOによるストリートチルドレンへの活動―事例
1.6 NGOの活動の影響
1.7 NGOによる活動の課題
1.8 結論
第二章 『農業開発の可能性―各セクターの事例から―』
2.1 概要
2.2 貧困とは〜貧困の罠〜
2.2.1 序論
2.2.2 アウトサイダーの貧困観
2.2.3 貧しい人々がおかれている五つの不利な状況
2.2.4 貧窮化の罠
2.3 問題提起
2.4 ODAの取り組み
2.5 NGOの取り組み
2.6 企業の取り組み〜アグリビジネスの可能性〜
2.7 セクターごとの考察
2.8 結論
第三章 『開発と環境の共存―アラル海を事例に―』
3.1 動機
3.2 アラル海問題の概要
3.2.1 アラル海問題とは
3.2.2 湖破壊の現状
3.3 問題発生の背景
3.3.1 ソ連以前のアラル海
3.3.2 ソ連政策と政策後のアラル海
3.4 アラル海問題による住民の生活の変容と実態
3.4.1 農業
3.4.2 漁業
3.4.3 環境病
3.5 周辺国及び国際社会のアラル海問題への対処と対策
3.5.1 周辺国のアラル海問題への対処と対策
3.5.2 国際社会のアラル海問題への対処と対策
3.6 分析
3.7 結論
作成年度 2007年度
プログラム名 FLP国際協力プログラム
ゼミ名 林光洋ゼミA
タイトル これからの開発貿易のあり方
フェアトレードから見える途上国の貿易と産業構造
目次 はじめに
目次
序章
第一章 フェアトレードの多様な定義と仕組み
第二章 フェアトレードにおける生産者の動向
第三章 フェアトレードにおける消費者問題
第四章 これからの開発貿易のありかた
あとがき
おわりに

演習B海外実態調査報告書

作成年度 2010年度
プログラム名 FLP国際協力プログラム
ゼミ名 林光洋ゼミB
タイトル Development Friendly to Social and Cultural Dimensions in Laos
With Special Attention to Local Communities
目次 Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
Summary of Study
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures

Introduction to the Study as a Whole:
Keyword, Theme and Research Fields

Chapter 1
The Commercialization of Traditional Textiles:
A Case Study of Distribution Activities in Vientiane
Preface
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Background
1.1.2 Points to Note
1.2 Textiles in the World
1.3 Textiles in Laos
1.3.1 Economic situation in Laos
1.3.2 Textiles in Laos
 1.3.2.1 Formation of the textile market
 1.3.2.2 The problem of textile sales
1.4 Case Study: Cambodia
1.4.1 Economy of Cambodia
1.4.2 Activities of IKTT
1.4.3 Exploitation of Foreign Markets
1.4.4 Promotion of the welfare of weavers
 1.4.4.1 Income
 1.4.4.2 Working Environment
 1.4.4.3 Living Environment
1.5 Outline of the Case Study in Laos
1.5.1 Research Outline
1.5.2 Brief Information of Four Study Cases
 1.5.2.1 Mulberries
 1.5.2.2 Lao Antique Textile Gallery
 1.5.2.3 Lao Textiles
 1.5.2.4 Houey Hong Vocational Training Centre for Women
1.5.3 Similarities in the Four Cases
1.6 Case Study: Commercialization of Traditional Textiles in Laos
1.6.1 Exploitation of Foreign Markets
1.6.2 Welfare Promotion for weavers
 1.6.2.1 Income
 1.6.2.2 Working environment
 1.6.2.3 Living environment
1.6.3 Considerations
 1.6.3.1 Hypothesis Verification
 1.6.3.2 Consideration of Social and Cultural Aspects
 1.6.3.3 Problems and Proposal
 1.6.3.4 The Potential of Fair Trade
1.7 Conclusions
Bibliography

Chapter 2
A Possibility of Community Participation in School Management in Laos:
Improvement in Education Environment through Taking Advantage of Existing Community Organizations
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Participatory Development and World Trend of Education Field
2.2.1 The Main Streams of Participatory Development
2.2.2 The Global Trends in the Field of Education
2.3 Actual Condition of Education in Laos and Community Participation 50 Approach
2.3.1 Current Situations of School Environment in Laos
2.3.2 The Current Situations and Problems of Education in Laos
2.3.3 The Education Improvement Policies Introduced by the Lao Government
2.3.4 Improvement for Education Environment with the Community

2.4 Community Participation in School Management in Laos with The Use of Existing Community Organization

2.4.1 VEDC with the Use of Existing Community Organizations
2.4.2 Community Participation in School Management in Laos

2.5 Improvement of educational environment Community participation in school management in Lao-PDR

2.5.1 Aid Projects of Community Participation in School Management in Laos

 2.5.1.1 JICA: Community Initiatives for Educational Development Project "CIDE Project"

 2.5.1.2 SVA: Primary School Construction and School Cluster Support
 2.5.1.3 UNICEF: School of Quality(SoQ)
2.5.2 Improvement of Educational Environment by Each Project
 2.5.2.1 JICA: CIED Project
 2.5.2.2 SVA: Primary School Construction and School Cluster Support
  2.5.2.2.1 In Bolikhamxay Prefecture: Pala primary school
  2.5.2.2.2 In Bolikhamxay Prefecture: Nakham primary school
 2.5.2.3 UNICEF: School of Quality (SoQ)
2.5.3 Considerations from Cases
2.6 Conclusion
2.6.1 Summary and Proof of Hypothesis
2.6.2 Discovery of the Problems
2.6.3 Education for Sustainable Development
Bibliography

Chapter 3
The Relationships between Enterprises and Local Community in Industrial Afforestration:
In the Case of LPFL
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 The background of our research
3.1.2 Points to note of our research
3.2 Economic Development and Deforestation in Laos
3.2.1 Economic Development in Laos
3.2.2 The reasons for Deforestation
3.3 Industrial Afforestation in Laos

3.3.1 Current situation of Industrial Afforestation and efforts taken by the Lao Government

3.3.2 Contribution to Economic Development
3.3.3 Contribution to the control over deforestation
3.4 Negative Influences of Industrial Afforestation on Local People
3.4.1 Processes of Industrial Afforestation
3.4.2 Cases of unconscionable afforestation companies
3.4.3 Lessons learned from 2 cases
3.4.4 The way to maintain sustainable afforestation
3.5 A Case of LPFL in Laos
3.5.1.1 The method and way of thinking about consideration of local people by LPFL
3.5.1.2 Answering and analysis
3.5.2 A case of Indonesia
3.5.3 Livelihood improvement
3.6 Conclusion
3.6.1 Summery and Conclusion
3.6.2 Next challenge
Bibliography

Chapter 4
Maternal and Child Health Deep-rooted in the Local Community:
Through Education for TBA/VHV
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Background of our Study
4.1.2 Limit of our Study
4.2 Maternal and Child Health in the world
4.2.1 Present Conditions and Problems of Maternal and Child Health
4.2.2 Attention to Maternal and Child Health
4.3 Maternal and Child health in the Laos
4.3.1 Reason why this study paid attention to Laos
4.3.2 Consciousness of Local People and Traditional Custom
4.3.3 Policies related to Maternal and Child Health in Laos
4.4 Maternal and Child Health deep-rooted in the Local community
4.4.1 The Key to solve the Problems -Subjectivity of Inhabitants-
4.4.2 Human Resources in the Local Community ―TBA/VHV―
4.4.3 Importance of the Education for TBA/VHV
4.5 Case Study
4.5.1 Basic Information on Case Studies
4.5.2 Case Study in Laos
4.5.3 Case study in Cambodia
4.5.4 Analysis on Case Studies
4.6 Conclusion
4.6.1 Summary and Conclusion
4.6.2 The Suggestion
4.6.3 Assignment of our Study
Bibliography

Concluding Remarks:
Development friendly to Social and Cultural Dimensions in Local Communities in Laos

Appendix
-Schedule for Field Survey in the Laos in 2010
-Visiting List

Postscript
作成年度 2009年度
プログラム名 FLP国際協力プログラム
ゼミ名 林光洋ゼミB
タイトル Economic Development and Poverty Reduction in the Philippines
Micro-level Survey on the Roles of Governments, Enterprises, NGOs, and Communities
目次 Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Summary of the Study
Summary of the Study (Japanese)

Chapter 1 The Privatization of Water Services Benefiting the Poor
-A case of Manila, the Philippines-
Preface
1.1 The Background of Our Topics
1.2 Privatization of Water Services
1.2.1 Forms of privatization
1.2.2 Worldwide example of privatization of water service
 1.2.2.1 Jakarta, Indonesia
 1.2.2.2 Johannesburg and Dolphin coast, South Africa
 1.2.2.3 Buenos Aires, Argentine
1.3 The privatization of water service in the Philippines
1.3.1 The conditions of the Philippines
 1.3.1.1 The situation of economy in the Philippines
 1.3.1.2 The situation of stable water supply in the Philippines
1.3.2 Before the privatization of water services
1.3.3 The situation after the privatization
1.3.4 Flow of funds
1.3.5 Institutions related to the Privatization of Water Service
 1.3.5.1 Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS)
 1.3.5.2 Manila Water Company Inc. (MWCI)
 1.3.5.3 Maynilad Water Service Inc. (MWSI)
1.3.6 The project for the poor
 1.3.6.1 MWSS (before privatization) WIPDA
 1.3.6.2 MWCI Tubig Para Sa Barangy
 1.3.6.3 MWSI Bayan Tubig
 1.3.6.4 The comparison between the Project of the poor
1.4 The Essential Factors for the Success of the Privatization
1.4.1 Funds
 1.4.1.1 Funds from private sector
 1.4.1.2 Funds from an International Financial Institution
 1.4.1.3 GPOBA Project
1.4.2 Regulatory Institution
 1.4.2.1 Manila
 1.4.2.2 Jakarta
 1.4.2.3 Conclusion
1.4.3 Human resource development
1.4.4 Partnerships
 1.4.4.1 International organizations and enterprises
 1.4.4.2 Governments and enterprises
 1.4.4.3 Enterprises and residents
 1.4.4.4 Government and residents
1.5 Conclusions
Bibliography

Chapter 2 Community-Based Health Program in Metro Manila Dumpsites
-Its Achievement and Sustainability-
Preface
2.1 Community-based Health Program
2.1.1 What is the Community-based Health Program
2.1.2 What are HWs
2.1.3 Case Study of CBHP in Zambia
2.2 Health State in the Philippines
2.2.1 Philippine Health Care System
2.2.2 Social Development and Health Sector
2.3 Issues of Health in Philippines
2.3.1 Health Statistics of the Philippines
2.3.2 Issues of Health in Philippines
2.3 Dumpsites
2.3.1 Dumpsites and Background
 2.3.1.1 Overview of Metro Manila Dumpsites
 2.3.1.2 Overview of Payatas and Aroma Dumpsites
2.3.2 Health needs in Dumpsites
 2.3.2.1 Chemicals and Health Conditions in the Dumpsites
 2.3.2.2 Residential Living Environment and Health Conditions in the Dumpsites
 2.3.2.3 Poverty and Health Conditions of Residents
2.3.3 In Order to Achieve CBHPs in the Dumpsites
2.4 Case Study: in Payatas PhaseⅡ
2.4.1 Payatas PhaseⅡ
2.4.2 Community Health Volunteer-based Health Program
 2.4.2.1 NGO approach
 2.4.2.2 Community Health Volunteers (CHVs)
2.4.3 Sustainable Health Care Program
 2.4.3.1 Resident Organization, Payatas Integrated Cooperative Operation (PICO)
 2.4.3.2 Networking in the health care program
2.5 Analysis of Case Study
2.5.1 Community-based activity
2.5.2 Community needs being oriented
2.5.3 Effective use of resources
2.6 Conclusion
2.6.1 Steps to Establish Resident Organization
 2.6.1.1 Step 1: External Support
 2.6.1.2 Step 2: Networking
 2.6.1.3 Step 3: Establishment of Residents Organization
2.6.2 Promotion of CBHPs
Bibliography

Chapter 3 The Impact of Mobile Phone Transactions in Microfinance
-An Analysis of the situation in the Philippines-
Preface
3.1 Microfinance
3.1.1 What in Microfinance?
 3.1.1.1 An overview of Microfinance
 3.1.1.2 The features of Microfinance
3.1.2 Microfinance in the Philippines
3.2 The Importance of the Cost for Microfinance
3.2.1 Why is cost important?
3.2.2 Solutions for the cost
 3.2.2.1 Branchless banking
 3.2.2.2 The problems of ATMs and Internet banking
3.3 Mobile phone transactions in Microfinance
3.3.1 Why Mobile phones?
3.3.2 Overview of mobile banking
 3.3.2.1 The mobile banking system
 3.3.2.2 Examples of mobile phone transaction
3.3.3 The merits of mobile banking for microfinance
 3.3.3.1 Reduced time
 3.3.3.2 Reduced cost
 3.3.3.3 Enhancement of security
 3.3.3.4 Other benefit
3.3.4 Case Study 1:The Philippines
 3.3.4.1 Mobile banking in the Philippines
 3.3.4.2 The role of GM Bank
 3.3.4.3 Interviews with GM Bank clients
 3.3.4.4 Problems
3.3.5 Case Study 2: Kenya
 3.3.5.1 Mobile phone transaction in Kenya
 3.3.5.2 The impact of mobile phone transactions in Kenya
 3.3.5.3 The Problems in Kenya
3.4 The problems of Mobile Phone Transactions and their Solutions
3.4.1 Mobile phones
 3.4.1.1 The problems of mobile phones
 3.4.1.2 Solution
3.4.2 Cash in and Cash out
 3.4.2.1 Lack of facilities
 3.4.2.2 Solutions
3.4.3 Recognition of Mobile Phone Transactions
 3.4.3.1 Problems
 3.4.3.2 Solution
3.4.4 Lack of Professional organizations
 3.4.4.1 Importance of professional organizations
 3.4.4.2 Solutions to this problem
3.5 Conclusion
Bibliography

Chapter 4 The Possibility of the BOP Business helpful for Micro Entrepreneurs
-A Case of HAPINOY Project-
Preface
4.1 What is the BOP Business?
4.1.1 Outline of BOP business
4.1.2 The type of microfranchise operations
4.2 The Problem of BOP Business
4.3 A Change of the BOP Business
4.3.1 The change of the BOP business
4.3.2 Example of SMART -success of BOP segment-
4.3.3 The need of the BOP business involving the BOP
4.3.4 Research questions
4.3.5 Microfranchising
 4.3.5.1 The case of microfranchise-Shakti project-
 4.3.5.2 Research question
4.4 HAPINOY Project
4.4.1 BOP Business in the Philippines
 4.4.1.1 The circumstance of the BOP business in the Philippines
 4.4.1.2 Microfinance in Philippines
 4.4.1.3 CARD MRI
4.4.2 The Outline of the HAPINOY Project
 4.4.2.1 The Origin of the HAPINOY Project
 4.4.2.2 The Idea of the HAPINOY Project
 4.4.2.3 The Activities of the HAPINOY Project
 4.4.2.4 The Supporting by Micro Ventures Inc,
4.4.3 The System of the HAPINOY Project
 4.4.3.1 Sari-sari store
 4.4.3.2 HAPINOY store and Community store
 4.4.3.3 Microventure Inc.
 4.4.3.4 The Enterprises Connected with the HAPINOY Project
 4.4.3.5 The Connection of All Sectors
4.5 Discussion of HAPINOY project
4.6 Conclusion
Bibliography

Appendix
-Schedule for Field Survey in the Philippines in 2009
-List of Organizations/Companies/Individuals We Visited
Postscript
作成年度 2008年度
プログラム名 FLP国際協力プログラム
ゼミ名 林光洋ゼミB
タイトル Economic Development and Poverty Reduction In the Philippines
Micro-level Survey on the Roles of Governments, Enterprises, NGOs, and Communities
目次 Preface
Acknowledgments
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Summary of the Study
Summary of the Study(Japanese)

Chapter 1
Supply Chain Management for Sustainable Development
‐ CSR Procurement present conditions and issues of case study in the Philippines -
Preface
1.1 The Environmental and Social Problem in the Source of Supply Chain
1.2 CSR Procurement for Sustainable Development
1.2.1 What is CSR procurement?
1.2.2 Case study of the CSR procurement
1.2.3 CSR procurement with responsibility to the source of supply chain
1.3 Case Study of CSR Procurement in the Philippines
1.3.1 Kao Corporation
1.3.2 HONDA CARS PHILIPPINES Inc.
1.3.3 NESIC Philippines, Inc.
1.3.4 Nestlé Philippines Inc. 
1.3.5 PBSP(Philippine Business for Social Progress)
1.3.6 Haribon
1.3.7 SAFRUDI
1.3.8 Conclusion
1.4 What is needed for Companies and Stakeholders to Practice CSR Procurement?
1.4.1 Companies
1.4.2 Stakeholders
1.4.3 Cooperation between both stakeholders
1.4.4 Conclusion
1.5 Conclusion for ALL
Bibliography

Chapter 2
Aiming at the Promotion of CDM which Contributes Development in the Developing Countries
‐ 4 solutions for the barrier of implementing CDM -
Preface
2.1 Preface -Introduction-
2.2 The Background of Research Content Setting
2.2.1 The necessity of CDM in developing countries
2.2.2 Our question to CDM
2.3 CDM in the Developing Country, a Case Study: Teresa City, Philippine
2.3.1 Summary
2.3.2 A background before reaching project enforcement
2.3.3 The project details
2.3.4 Problems
2.3.5 Change after the project
2.4 Barrier in Implementation of CDM
2.4.1 Barrier in finance
2.4.2 Barrier in technique
2.4.3 Barrier in scale
2.4.4 Barrier in infrastructure
2.5 Promotion of CDM in Developing Countries
2.5.1 Solution for financial barrier
2.5.2 Solution or technical barrier
2.5.3 Solution for scale
2.5.4 Solution for infrastructure
2.6 Cunclusion
Bibliography

Improvement of the Poor People's Lives through the Enhancement of Access to Safe Water
‐ Analysis on SPWN project in Metro Manila -
3.1 What is ‘Safe Water’?
3.1.1 Definition of ‘safe water’
3.1.2 The importance of connecting the water supply
3.1.3 The reason why infrastructure is not enough in developing countries
3.2 Water Utilities in Metro Manila
3.2.1 Privatization of water utilities in Metro Manila
3.2.2 Movement of privatization
3.2.3 Water supply in Metro Manila
3.2.4 Informal sectors in Metro Manila
3.3 Small Piped Water Networks -Connecting Piped Water to the Poor
3.3.1 Introduction
3.3.2 The background of SPWN
3.3.3 Outline of SPWN pilot project
3.3.4 Case Study of pilot project -Metro Manila East Zone
3.3.5 Result of pilot project -Metro Manila East Zone
3.4 Analysis of SPWN
3.4.1 Exemption of land title
3.4.2 Community based organization
3.4.3 Extended connection charges
3.5 How does the SPWN Project contribute to the Poor?
3.5.1 Direct effects
3.5.2 Indirect effects
3.5.3 Combined-spillover effects
3.6 Conclusion
Bibliography

Chapter 4
Expansion and Quality Improvement of Basic Education for the Poor in Metro Manila
‐The roles of the non-formal education-
Preface
4.1 Education System of the Philippines
4.1.1 Education system
4.1.2 Measures taken by the government
4.1.3 The problem of public schools
4.1.4 Questionnaire survey in public school
4.2 The Contents of our Field Survey
4.2.1 KnK network Philippines
4.2.2 TATAG
4.2.3 Childhope Asia Philippines
4.3 Field survey
4.3.1 Scholarship
4.3.2 Non-formal education
4.3.3 ALS(Alternative Learning System)
4.3.4 The Street Education
4.4 Section Conclusion
Bibliography
Appendix

Appendix
‐Schedule for Field Survey in the Philippines in 2008
‐Visiting List
Postscript