2018年6月27日開催 公開研究会開催報告 （非線形経済理論研究会）
【テーマ】1.Childcare availability and female labor supply after childbirth
2.Parental leave and women's skill use on the job:Evidence from PIAAC
【報告者】1.深井 太洋 氏（東京大学大学院経済学研究科特任研究員）
【場 所】多摩キャンパス2号館4階 研究所会議室3
In this presentation, we estimated the effect of childcare availability on female labor force participation using Japanese Census from 1990 to 2010, carefully handling several potential sources of bias. Especially, we focused on the heterogeneity in the treatment effects by age of the youngest child. We found that an increase in childcare availability in Japan from 1990 to 2010 led to a significant increase in full-time employment rate of mothers with children aged 0 — 2, suggesting that recent childcare expansion may help women to keep working after childbirth.
Meanwhile, our results also indicate that women having their first child are at a disadvantage in using childcare services due to the supply shortage and current childcare rationing rule.
Most developed countries adopt parental leave policies to promote women’s labor-force participation without sacrificing family formation. Studies find that short-term parental leave increases the women’s time spent at home and promotes their return to the labor force after childbearing, but some studies point out that long-term parental leave hinders the career advancement of high-skilled women. This paper analyzes eterogeneous impacts of parental leave policy on women’s skill-use intensity by skill level, drawing on rich information on individual skill and skill-use intensity available from the micro data of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), which covers 30 countries. The results show that longer parental leave narrows the gender gap in skill-use intensity among low-skilled workers but widens it among high-skilled workers.
This finding is robust after controlling for international di_erences in gender norms and labor-market institutions and allowing for country fixed e_ects. The findings corroborate with the claim that a longer parental leave period suppresses the career advancement of high-skilled women.