声と文字とをデザインする ――コミュニケーション帝国としてのモンゴル ――
“Designing Voices and Letters: The Mongols as an Empire of Communication”
1st and 2nd, July 2018
研究代表者 縄田雄二 文学部教授
（日本学術振興会 立教大学 特別研究員）
In the opening remarks of this two-day symposium, Nawata—the principal investigator of the research project “Towards a Global History of Culture”—mentioned the significance of this symposium in the context of Kulturwissenschaft, which has deepened our understanding of “culture” by focusing not only on cultural elements themselves but also on media between culture(s). This symposium aimed at broadening the scope of this approach by going beyond the West, with which Kulturwissenschaft has mostly been concerned. With this purpose, we concentrated especially on the Mongol empire (1206–1368), which influenced Afro-Eurasia broadly.
In the first panel, “Chinese as a World,” we discussed 1) a Chinese-into-Persian translation project during the Ilkhanid dynasty (ca. 1256–1357), with precise reconstruction of the sounds of Chinese then; and 2) the restoration of a Chinese traditional musical instrument and its significance under the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). The second panel, “Inscriptions Tell the Empire,” revolved around the act of writing and what was written, by focusing on 1) a new genre of tomb inscriptions under the influence of Mongol rule in Northern China; 2) various materials of communication media like stone, paper and iron; and 3) Arabic epitaphs in Muslim diasporas in the Chinese coastal areas far from the native lands. In the third panel, “Diplomacy, Law, Art Uniting Eurasia,” we dealt with actual phases of the communication of peoples, material, and information between cultures and classes in the fields of 1) diplomacy, 2) law, and 3) the arts. The fourth panel, “Voices and Letters in Imperial Order,” elucidated some important communication media and their development by discussing 1) the Mongol-imperial “literal translation style,” 2) Uyghur script, and 3) seals.
In the general discussion, Nawata outlined the topics and discussions of this symposium with the following three words: 1) circulating, 2) remembering, and 3) assembling. While the first word was related to space, the second was about time. The third term, on the other hand, refers to something accumulated through communication across time and space, as for example the Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīkh [Collected Histories]—a compendium of histories of the world compiled in the Ilkhanid dynasty. On the basis of these terms, the discussion concerning time extended to comparison with other eras such as the “Pax Romana” and the age of printing. Regarding space, we also considered the influence of horses and nomadic culture in the communication system of the empire. We also affirmed that not only chronology but also genealogy exemplified “assembling” in the imperial culture. While the Mongols created the largest landmass empire in history and utilized a new script and writing style, quite a few of their communication systems were in fact based on existing communication cultures. In this sense, their designs of voices and letters could be said to be “changes in continuity.”
このシンポジウム「声と文字とをデザインする ――コミュニケーション帝国としてのモンゴル ――」は、政治権力とコミュニケーション体系との複雑な関係について議論する場であり、その焦点をモンゴル帝国（1206～1368年）に定めている。この種の関係の歴史的展開は、例えばハロルド・イニスの代表作『帝国とコミュニケーション』などによって、すでに詳細に研究されている。しかしイニスの叙述は、古代から中世を経て近代に至る「西洋」の発展を叙述しながら、必要に応じて「その他」に言及するというヘーゲル的な古典史観を超えてはいない。このシンポジウムは、イニスの後は例えばフリードリヒ・キットラーへと受け継がれたこの長きに亘る議論の「脱西洋中心主義化」を図ることで、この問題に新たな光を当てようとするものである。「西洋」と「その他」とを包括し、コミュニケーション体系においても際立った多様性を見せていたモンゴル帝国は、その格好の題材となる。
Our symposium “Designing Voices and Letters: The Mongols as an Empire of Communication” aims to provide an appropriate platform to discuss about entangled relationship between political powers and communication media, by especially dealing with the case of the Mongol empire (1206–1368). The historical strand of such relationship was already detailed, for example, by Harold Innis in his chef-d’œuvre Empire and Communications. However, he was based on what might be called “Hegelian historical narrative” which traced the development of the “West”—from the antiquity to the modern eras via the medieval ages—with referring to the “others” pro re nata. At the workshop, therefore, we attempt to shed some new light upon this long-discussed issue, which has been addressed after Innis by for example Friedrich Kittler, through emancipation from “Eurocentric” history. This perspective turns our attention toward the Mongol empire which encompassed the “West” and the “others,” standing out with the full variety of communication.
|July 2 (Mon.), 2018|
|9:00–10:30||Panel 4: Voices and Letters in Imperial Order
Chair: Tatsuhiko SEO(Chuo University)
1) Yoshiyuki FUNADA (Hiroshima University):
3) Yasuhiro YOKKAICHI (Rikkyo University):
|11:00–12:00||General Discussion (Chair: Yuji NAWATA)|
Research Project Towards a Global History of Culture Chuo Research Institute Symposium Series