※「顔・身体学」心理班国際ワークショップ において プログラムの一部として開催します
講 師： Olivier Pascalis 氏 (グルノーブル・アルプ大学教授)
テーマ： What is the impact of deafness on vision and face perception?
要 旨： It is well established that early profound deafness leads to enhancements in visual processes in order to compensate the lack of auditory information. Visual improvements have been mainly reported in the peripheral Visual Field but early deafness affects several aspects of central visual processing. Deafness is also associated with sign language which can also be used by hearing. In deaf communication, faces have a special status, for example, in sign language, facial expression provides not only emotional but also grammatical and syntactic markers.While looking at the speaker’s face, observers have to perceive manual gestures and signs that are mainly produced between the chest and the neck. Communication by sign language in deaf or hearing people requires a specific attention, which also might impact the way these populations process faces.
I will present a series of studies in which we have been investigating the impact of deafness on vision and face processing. In order to address the role of sign language we have compared population of deaf signers with population of hearing signers. Our results suggest that Sign language experience, not associated with deafness, may be also a modulating factor of visual cognition.
講 師： 北山 忍 氏 (ミシガン大学教授)
テーマ： The legacy of George Herbert Mead in cultural psychology:
The modulation of error processing by face images
要 旨： Around the turn of the 20th century, scholars in the symbolic interactionism school of thought including, most notably, George Herbert Mead argued that people develop a sense of the self by taking the perspective of others in their community (1). They posited that the image of such others become increasingly abstract to form what Mead called Generalized Other. While symbolic interactionism had decisive influences on subsequent theories of the self, little is known about socio-cultural variations of the generalized conception of other. Here, evidence is reviewed to support the hypothesis that whereas the generalized other is affirming and anxiety-reducing in Western, independent cultures, it is critical and anxiety-inducing in Asian, interdependent cultures. We further argue that these culturally dependent responses to the generalized other are likely to be adaptive because they enable individuals to be part of the dynamic configuration of their culture’s practices, values, and beliefs. First, incidental exposure to both realistic and abstract face images modulates the magnitude of cognitive dissonance in a culturally contingent fashion (2-5). Whereas face images increase dissonance in Asians, they decrease the latter in Americans. Second, face images similarly modulate an electrocortical signal of error processing called error-related negativity or ERN. Whereas they increase the ERN for Asians, they decrease the ERN for Americans (6, 7). Third, a recent finding from population-level surveys (8) shows that social anxiety (reflecting the sensitivity to threat cues) is associated with improved biological health (assessed with pro-inflammatory cytokines) in Japanese, but not in Americans, thereby underscoring the putative adaptive function of anxiety in interdependent societies. Future directions for cultural psychology and cultural neuroscience (9-11) will be discussed.