- 後楽園キャンパス 3号館5階3507教室
- Prof. Helmut R. Brand
（Theoretische Physik III, Universitat Bayreuth, Germany)
- We present the derivation of the macroscopic equations for systems with a dynamic preferred direction, which can be axial or polar in nature.
In addition to the usual hydrodynamic variables we introduce the time derivative of the local preferred direction  or the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units  as a new variable and discuss their macroscopic consequences [1,2]. Such an approach is expected to be useful for a number of biological systems including, for example, the formation of dynamic macroscopic patterns shown by certain bacteria such as Proteus mirabilis, shoals of fish, flocks of birds and migrating insects.
As a concrete application we set up a macroscopic model of bacterial growth and transport based on a polar dynamic preferred direction -- the collective velocity of the bacteria . This collective velocity is subject to the isotropic-nematic transition modeling the density-controlled transformation between immotile and motile bacterial states.
The approach can be applied also to other systems spontaneously switching between individual (disordered) and collective (ordered) behavior, and/or collectively responding to density variations, e.g., bird flocks, fish schools etc. We observe a characteristic and robust nonlinear stop-and-go behavior of the type also observed for the growth of bacteria experimentally . We also discuss our recent work on the stress tensor critically comparing the results of our model with those of other groups .
 H.R. Brand, H. Pleiner and D. Svensek, Eur. Phys. J. E34, 128 (2011).
 H. Pleiner, D. Svensek and H.R. Brand, Eur. Phys. J. E36, 135 (2013).
 D. Svensek, H. Pleiner and H.R. Brand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111,
 Y. Yamazaki et al., Physica D - Nonlinear Phenomena, 205 D, 236
 H.R. Brand, H. Pleiner and D. Svensek, Eur. Phys. J. E37, 83 (2014).
中大・理工・物理 脇田 順一
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